South-South Cooperation involves the exchange of technology, knowledge or skills among low-income or middle-income countries. In distinction to Triangular Cooperation, it does not include financial or technical assistance by a traditional bilateral or multilateral development agency, foundation or international NGO.

South-South initiatives exist in great abundance, but in a dynamic global economy they are increasingly more difficult to categorise.

Triangular Cooperation is widely practiced by bilateral and multilateral Overseas Development Aid Agencies, international Non-Governmental Organisations and foundations. There is a difference between Triangular Cooperation initiatives that focus primarily on capacity and skills development, and initiatives that have knowledge sharing as their main objectives, although there are wide areas of overlap between them.

The 2014 report South South and Triangular Cooperation in Health: Current Status in Trends is a diagnostic study to document the international experience in South-South Cooperation in health, and to identify key areas of needs.